breast cancer, symptoms, reatmnets diagnosis facts

Breast cancer- Symptoms, Types, Treatment, Stages

Breast cancer is that form of cancer which develops from the breast tissues in the breast.

Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women and can occur in men and women, but mostly develop in women.

The breast cancer survival rate is noticeably increased in the past few years due to the help of breast cancer awareness, research on breast cancer, technology, and detected in the early stages.

Sign and Symptoms

  • The feel of a lump in the breast More than 80% of breast cancer cases discovered when women report a lump in the breast. Lump found in the armpits can also indicate breast cancer.
  • Thickening of breast tissue
  • Noticeable difference in both breasts
  • Nipple changes their position or starts to leak fluid.
  • Constant pain in some part of the breast.
  • Breast inflammation
  • Itching, nipple inversion, pain, and warmth throughout the breast.
  • Discoloration
  • Redness around the nipple
  • Swelling around the collarbone or your armpit
  • Tingling
  • Increased sensitivity

The risk factors of breast cancer

There are several factors which can increase the risk of the reast cancer.

1. The family history of breast cancer

If your first-degree relatives (mother, daughter, sister) ever had breast cancer, then you are a relatively higher risk of developing breast cancer.

If they had before 50 at this place, you are at higher risk than before.

2. Aging

As your age goes up, your chances of developing breast go up too.

About 80% of women diagnosed with breast cancer are over 50, and almost 40% are older than 65 or 65.

3. If you ever diagnosed with breast cancer

If you ever had breast cancer, especially ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) or invasive breast cancer, then you are at higher risk of developing again breast cancer which can be the same or different type.

4. Genetics

Genetics believes the primary cause of breast cancer in 5 to 10% of all cases. Women whose mother diagnosed before 50 have an increased risk of 170 % and those over 50 have an increase of 140 %.

In less than 5 % of cases, genetics played a significant role in hereditary breast cancer. BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutation account up to 90% of the total genetic influence with the risk of 60-80% of those affected.

5. Women with dense breast

Women with dense breast are 2 times more likely to get breast cancer

6. Medical conditions

Breast changes, like lobular carcinoma in situ correlate with increased breast cancer risk. Diabetes might also increase the risk of breast cancer.

7. Reproductive history

Your body made more estrogen over time which increase the risk of developing breast cancer.

So before getting period, or starting menopause or never become pregnant, increases your lifetime to exposure to estrogen, which also increases the risk of breast cancer.cer.

8. Radiation

If you had radiation, treatment or exposure to your chest before the age of 30, this also increases the breast cancer risk.

9. Exposure to DES (diethylstilbestrol)

DES (diethylstilbestrol) was the drug which was given to women between 1940 to 1700 to prevent miscarriage. If your mother was taken it, your risk of breast cancer also increases.

10. Having a first child at an older date

If women give birth to their first child older than 30, also increase the chances of breast cancer.

11. Smoking tobacco

The greater amount of smoking or smoking starting an early age also increase the risk of breast cancer. The risk is increased by 35% to 50% in those who are long-term smokers.

12. Obesity and drinking

Obesity and drinking are the most common factor to cause this and you can easily modify this by simply make changes in your daily lifestyle

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Breast Cancer With Pain and Lumps [FAQs].

Types of breast cancer

Several types of breast cancer begins from variuos places such as lobule, duct, some cases between the tissue etc.

1. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS)

DCIS accounts for 20% of new breast cancer diagnosed each year. It is the abnormal growth of cells within the ducts. It is non-invasive breast cancer.

It starts inside the milk ducts and hasn’t spread beyond the milk duct into normal tissue.

It is not very dangerous, but having DCIS can increase the risk of invasive breast cancer. DCIS is the earliest stage of breast cancer and most of the women diagnosed with it are cured.

If you had DCIS then you are at the 30% higher risk of developing new breast cancer.

2. Hormone Receptor-Positive

80% of all breast cancers are “ER-positive.” which means Cancer cells are grown due to the estrogen hormone and 65% of these are “PR-positive” which mean cells are grown in response to progesterone hormone.

If breast cancer has a significant number of the receptor for either of these hormones than it considers as Hormone Receptor-Positive. This type of cancers responds to hormone therapy.

3. IDC (Invasive Ductal Carcinoma)

IDC is also called infiltrating ductal carcinoma. It is the most common type of breast cancer. Almost 80% of all breast cancers are IDC.

This cancer starts from the milk duct and begun to spread in the normal tissue. Over time it can spread to the other part of the body.

More than 180,000 women in the united state are diagnosed with IDC each year.

It divided into five catagory.

I. Tubular Carcinoma

These are usually small and made with tube shape structure. In this, cells look similar to the normal cell and tend to grow slowly.

Studies suggest that Tubular Carcinoma maybe accounts for 10 to 20% of all breast cancers. This type is very rare in men.

Tubular Carcinoma is an invasive type of breast cancer, but it is a less aggressive type of IDC and easily treatable.

It is not likely to spread outside the breast so have a very good prognosis

II. Medullary Carcinoma

It is a very rare type of IDC and accounts for 3-5% of all cases of breast cancer. It is called “medullary” because the tumor is soft and fleshy mass.

It is common in those women who have a BRCA1 mutation.

It looks aggressive, but it grows slowly and usually doesn’t spread outside the breast. So it is easier to treat than other types of breast cancer.

III. Mucinous Carcinoma

Mucinous Carcinoma is sometimes also called colloid Carcinoma. It is a rare form of IDC. In this, the tumor is made up of the abnormal cells called mucus.

Mucus lines found in the most inner surface of our body, such as lung, digestive tract, liver, etc. breast cancer produces mucus.

In this type of cancer, the machine becomes part of the tumor and surrounding breast cancer cells.

Research suggests that 2-3% of IDC are pure Mucinous Carcinoma.

IV. Papillary Carcinoma

Papillary Carcinoma accounting less than 2% of invasive breast cancers. It’s found mostly in older women or women through menopause.

Invasive papillary carcinoma defines the shape and made a small and finger-like projection.

These are described in three grades, grade 2 is normal, grade 1 look normal and healthy and grade 3 fast-growing cells.

V. Cribriform Carcinoma

Invasive Cribriform Carcinoma spread over the connective tissue of the breast and form a nest-like structure between duct and lobule.

There are holes within the tumor between the cancer cells. Invasive Cribriform Carcinoma is low grade, which means it looks and behaves like normal cell breast cells. It accounts in 5-6% of invasive breast cancer.

4. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC)

Sometimes it’s also called infiltrating lobular carcinoma and it is the second most common type of breast cancer after the IDC.

ILC accounts for 10% of all invasive breast cancers..

It starts from the milk-producing lobules (which carry milk to the nipple) and invades the tissues of the breast.

If it’s not caught in the early stages, it can spread to the lymph nodes and in the other part of the body.

It is more common in older women. According to the American Cancer Society, about two-thirds of women are older than 55 when they diagnosed with invasive breast cancer.

However, hormone therapy during or after menopause can also increase the risk of ILC.

5. Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC)

Inflammatory breast cancer is a rare and very aggressive form of breast cancer. It accounts in about 1% of all breast cancer cases.

IBC starts with the swelling and reddening of the breast, unlike others with distinct lumps in the breast. Inflammatory breast cancer tends to spread very quickly.

So it is very important to recognize in the initial stage. It is a very serious diagnosis, but today treatments are better at controlling the disease, than they were.

A study in 2008 found that IBC is more likely to develop in those people who are overweight.

6. Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCSI)

LCSI is not cancer and it doesn’t show in the mammogram. Lobular carcinoma in situ is the areas of abnormal cell growth that increases the risk of developing breast cancer later on.

This can be due to the breast biopsy for another reason.

LSCI means that the abnormal growth of cells remains in lobule (a milk-producing gland at the end of the duct) and doesn’t spread in the surrounding area.

LCSI is not true cancer but LCSI means that the person at a higher risk to develop breast cancer in the future.

It also called lobular neoplasia instead of lobular carcinoma. Neoplasia is a collection of abnormal cells.

7. Male Breast Cancer

Breast cancer in a male is very rare. In 2018, 2250 men are expected to be diagnosed with breast cancer. Less than 1% of all breast cancers, found in men.

How can occur breast cancer in male, although Male doesn’t have breast?

But both male and female have breast tissue, but various female hormones tend to grow breast tissue into full size.

8. Molecular Subtypes

These five types of molecular subtypes of breast cancer

I. Luminal A

This type of breast cancer is hormone-receptor-positive (E-R or P-R positive), low level of protein Ki67 and HER2 negative.

It is low grade, which means grow slow and easy to treat.

II. Luminal B

This type of breast cancer is hormone-receptor-positive (E-R or P-R positive), high level of protein Ki67 and HER2 positive.

It grows slightly better than Luminal A cancer.

III. Triple-negative breast cancer

This type of breast cancer is hormone-receptor-negative (E-R or P-R negative) and HER2 negative.

This is more common in women with BRCA1 gene mutations. This type of cancer is more common in African-American women and younger women.

IV. HER2-enriched

This type of breast cancer is hormone-receptor-negative (E-R or P-R positive) and HER2 positive.

These are high grade, mean tend to grow faster than previously and can have a worse prognosis.

But also can successfully be treated with targeted therapies aimed at HER2.

V. Normal-like

This type of breast cancer is hormone-receptor-positive (E-R or P-R positive), low level of protein Ki67 and HER2 negative.

While it has good prognosis the luminal A.

9. Paget’s Disease of the Nipple

Paget’s Disease of the Nipple is a rare type of disease in this kin of the nipple changes.

It starts on the nipple and extend to the dark circle of the skin.

This condition is uncommon and accounts in almost 1 to 4% of all breast cancers. It most often occurs in women older than 50.

10. Metastatic Breast Cancer

Metastatic cancer is also called stage 4 breast cancer. It is that breast cancer that has spread to other body parts such as liver, bones, brain or lungs.

It can separate from the original tumor and can travel to the other parts through the bloodstream.

Breast cancer can come back after the years or months after diagnosed. Nearly 30% of women who are diagnosed with early stages of the breast will develop metastatic disease.

Diagnosis of this type of cancer is very hard. It won’t go away easily.

Metastatic breast may not go away completely, but treatment can control it for some years.

If one treatment stop working there is another option you can try.

11. Phyllodes tumors of the breast

Phyllodes tumors of the breast are the typical type of breast cancer, it accounts for less than 1% of all breast tumors.

It grows in a leaf-like pattern and quickly, but rarely spread outside of the breast.

Although most of the tumor of these type are non-cancerous, some are malignant and some cane between non-cancerous and cancerous.

All three grow very quickly and require surgery to reduce risk.

Prevention of breast cancer

You can reduce the chances of breast cancer if you make some changes in your lifetyle.

1. Control your weight

You should keep your weight under control. Being overweight can make you prone to many cancers and many diseases including breast cancer.

Especially if you are being overweight during menopause or after 50.

2. Do not smoke

Tobacco can cause a different type of cancers, including breast cancer as well.

A study by the American Journal of Epidemiology in 2015 found that women smokers are at much higher risk than non-smokers.

3. You should breastfeed

One year breastfeeding can lower the risk of breast cancer and it’s also good for your child.

The reason is not clear, but it could be women don’t ovulate regularly while they breastfeeding and estrogen doesn’t fluctuate.

4. Avoid birth control pills After 35

While women taking these pills, it slightly increased the risk of breast cancer but you can easily decrease the risk by stopping the pills. Especially if you are smokers you should avoid it.

But you should ask your doctor because taking birth control pills, have its own risk and benefits.

5. Avoid Post-Menopausal Hormones

The study shows that these hormones have a mixed effect on your health.

It decreases the risk of some disease but increases the risk of some diseases too. Estrogen-plus-progestin hormone and estrogen-only hormones increase the risk of some diseases.

6. Exercise 4-5 hours per week

According to a report from the European Code Against Cancer, physical inactivity contributes to 9% of all breast cancer cases.

People who exercise or physically active, reduce the risk of breast cancer as well as other life taking disease like heart diseases.

You can pick any exercise that you enjoyed the most, like cycling, swimming, dancing, playing etc.

7. Find out the density of your breast

Know about breast cancer density is a new way to detect breast cancer possibility. If you have more tissues than fat, which is common in young women make cancer harder to detect. Because of both breast tissue and tumor are white and fat looks black.

Treatment

In cancer, doctors of a different area give different treatment. your Doctor gives the treatment you according to your cancer type, stage and according to your condition. So only your doctor knows what would best for you.

1. Surgery

As the name suggests in surgery, tumor and infected tissues are removed from your breast.

Who specializes in treating cancer with surgery is called surgical oncologist.

Types of surgeries

1. Lumpectomy:- This is the removal of the tumor and some healthy cells around the tumor.

2. Mastectomy:- This is the removal of the entire breast during operation.

2. Radiation therapy

In this high-energy light beam (x-ray or other beam particles) used to destroy the tumor or cancerous cells.

A radiation oncologist is a doctor who is specializing to give radiation therapy.

Radiation therapy may be given after or before surgery. When given after surgery is called Adjuvant radiation therapy.

When given before surgery is called Neoadjuvant radiation therapy. Radiation therapy is given in series one after one.

There are several types of Radiation therapy

1. External-beam radiation therapy:- This is the most common therapy among all radiotherapy and given to the outside body

2. Intraoperative radiation therapy:- when radiation therapy is given using a probe.

3. Brachytherapy:- in this radiation source placed inside the tumor.

Radiation therapy can have side effects like fatigue, redness, pain, burning skin and swelling in the breast.

3. Chemotherapy

In chemotherapy, drugs are used to stop and destroy the cancerous cells by ending the ability to divide and grow of a cancerous cell.

It may be given before surgery, which shrinks the tumor and makes surgery easier called neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

It may be given after surgery prevents recurrence called adjuvant chemotherapy.

Chemotherapy usually consists of a combination of drugs. Chemotherapy can also cause side effects to depend upon the individual, dose, drugs used.

These side effects can cause fatigue, weight gain, constipation, hair loss etc.

4. Hormonal therapy

Hormonal therapy is an effective treatment for most of the tumor, which is either E-R or P-R positive.

This type of tumor use hormone for their growth by blocking hormones can prevent cancer in the future. Hormonal therapy can give before and after surgery.

Before therapy used to shrink the tumor called neoadjuvant hormonal therapy.

And after therapy used to prevent cancer in the future called adjuvant hormonal therapy.

These are a different type of hormonal surgery

I. Tamoxifen

Tamoxifen is a drug used to block the estrogen and binding the breast cancer cells together.

It blocks the main ability of cancerous cells of spreading in different parts and take away fuel by blocking estrogen which prevents them from growing.

The common side effect of Tamoxifen is dryness in the vagina.

II. Aromatase inhibitors

Aromatase inhibitors decrease the amount of estrogen in the tissues other than the ovaries by blocking the aromatase enzyme.

AIs can be first hormonal therapy or can be taken with tamoxifen.

III. Ovarian suppression

In this surgery or drug use to stop the ovaries from producing estrogen.

Ovarian suppression also have two types

1. Gonadotropin or luteinizing releasing these hormones stop the ovaries from making estrogen

2. Surgery to remove ovaries which stop the estrogen production. This good for those women who have done with children.

5. Targeted therapy

In this therapy, cancer-specific gene, protein and tissues are targeted. This treatment is very specific unlike others

Stages of breast cancer

Breast cancer stage is described by the TNM system

T (tumor)= How large and where is located.

N (Node)= Tumor spread to the other node.

M (Metastasis)= Cancer spreads to the other body parts.

Cancer stages

Stage 0

Stage 0: when cancer only in the duct and lobule and has no spread to surrounding tissue.

Stage 1

Stage IA: when the tumor is invasive and small and spread to node.

Stage IB: when cancer spreads into the lymph greater than 0.2 mm but less than 2mm.

Stage 2

Stage IIA: When cancer is smaller than 20mm but not greater than 50mm and not spread to the axillary lymph nodes or smaller than 20mm but spread to the axillary lymph nodes.

Stage IIB: when the tumor size between 20-50 mm and spread over the axillary lymph nodes or size greater than 50mm but spread over axillary lymph nodes.

Stage 3

Stage IIIA: when cancer spread over 4-9 axillary lymph nodes or size greater than 50mm but spread to 1-3 axillary lymph nodes.

Stage IIIB: when cancer spread to the chest wall, but not to the other body parts.

Stage IIIC: when cancer spread to 10 or more axillary lymph nodes. But not spread to the other body parts

Stage 4

Stage IV or metastatic: when the tumor spread to the other body parts and the tumor can be any size.

Breast cancer screening

Breast cancer screening tests are performed to find breast cancer in the early stages before it shows any symptom or spread over the other part of the body.

Screening may include some laboratory tests like blood tests, genetics, imaging of body etc.

If women have no sign of breast cancer, then they go further breast examination.


Like, Clinical breast exam: the physical examination of the breast by a doctor.

Mammography: in these X-rays is used to produce the image of the breast. It is the most useful way to detect breast cancer.

Breast cancer charity

If you are going through breast cancer or your relative have breast cancer, then you can contact these charities maybe these can help you.

And if you recently get over this and want to help other people you can also make a donation there. Your donation will help breast cancer research or maybe other breast cancer patient.

Your little donation can help someone. If you are interested in donation, you can go there and donate.

Breast cancer awareness month

October is a breast cancer awareness month. The breast cancer awareness month is also referred to NBCAM (National Breast Cancer Awareness Month) in America .

A breast cancer awareness month is a yearly campaign to educate people about breast cancer and early screening for breast cancer.

This campaign continues through all the month 1st October to 31 October every year.

Breast cancer shirt

If you want to aware people about yourself, then the best is to show them. Best way to show them by wearing a shirt if you want to, you can click here.

Or if you don’t want to, you shuld check their prices and design its free. If you are a recent survivor, you should buy.

Breast cancer Books (Recommended for you)

If you want to know more about breast cancer, then nothing is better than books. You can buy books easily from online stores. Books will explain you breast cancer briefly. If you are interested in books you can buy from Amazon. or at least you should check prices.

You can check prices on free of cost.

Facts about breast cancer

  • 12 to 15% of women will be diagnosed with breast cancer in her lifetime
  • There are about 3.1M breast cancer survivor in the US alone
  • Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and the second leading cause of death in women.
  • Breast cancer is very rare in men, but in 2017 there were 2,470 new cases of breast cancer in men.
  • On average in every 2 minutes, a woman diagnosed with breast cancer. And in 13 minutes, 1 one die.
  • In the UK, there are 55,000 women diagnosed with breast cancer every year.
  • Around 5% of all breast cancers are due to hereditary cause.
  • Almost 90% of women survive breast cancer for 5 years or more.
  • Men can also have breast cancer, but it’s 100 times less common in men than women.
  • Obese breast cancer patients are 30% higher risk of death due to breast cancer.
  • The mammogram is the most important device to detect breast cancer.
  • Healthy habits like drinking limit and not smoking can reduce the risk of developing breast cancer.
  • Breast cancer can cost in the USA $10,000 to $100,000 and in India 5 lakh to km

Summary of this article

Overview

Breast cancer is curable and you can easily cure it by detecting it early stage. You can detect it by itself A symptom like a lump in the breast, redness, swelling, nipple leak fluid, etc.

Although it is very difficult to detect breast cancer by its symptoms. You should screen yearly or half-yearly.

Symptoms may not be helpful, but you can decrease the risk of breast cancer by adding healthy lifestyle, quit smoking and drinking, exercise 5 hour per week and controlling your weight.

Breast cancer is different types of DCIS, IDC, Invasive Lobular Carcinoma, Inflammatory breast cancer, Lobular carcinoma in situ, metastatic breast cancer and Male Breast Cancer etc. In which, invasive is more dangerous than non-invasive. Metastatic breast is most dangerous also called stage IV stage breast cancer.

There is a different type of treatment available like surgery, radiation therapy, hormonal therapy, and targeted therapy. Which, given to you according to your condition and stage of cancer. It is found mainly in 4 stages

  1. Stage IA, Stage IB
  2. Stage IIA, Stage IIB
  3. Stage IIIA, Stage IIIB, Stage IIIC
  4. Stage IV or metastatic, which is the last stage of this cancer.

But you can detect this at an early stage by screening. In screening, some test examines breast cancer. From which monogram is most important.

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