Heart diseases – Symptoms, Type, Treatment, and Prevention

Heart diseases or cardiovascular diseases, are the major cause of deaths around the world.

Millions of people die due to heart attack and stroke every year. Heart diseases are many types which we discuss later.

Although heart attack doesn’t show up suddenly, they show the signs some of them we will discuss later.

Although heart diseases are preventable, you can prevent them by simply making changes in your daily lifestyle.

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Signs and Symptoms

Sign and symptom of heart disease because the sufferer doesn’t have much time to seek medical treatment.

Five signs of stroke

  • Loss of balance during walking.
  • Slurred speech or droopy face while you are talking
  • Weakness on the face, arm, leg, especially on one side of the body.
  • Difficulty seeing in one or both eyes, or impaired vision
  • Severe headache with no known causes.

Symptoms show that your heart isn’t working properly.

when your heart isn’t working properly it will show some symptoms by finding them timely you can prevent heart attack.

1. Pain which spread to the arm

Men mostly feel pain in the left arm while women feel pain in the left or right arm or can even in both arms.

Women are also reporting that they also experience unusual pain in the elbow before having a heart attack.

This happens because pain travels to the spinal cord where million of nerves are connected. Brain thinks that arm is physically hurting, but really it’s not.

2. Cough that won’t go away

A  persistent cough can be a symptom of many kinds of health issue and heart disease is also one of them.

Chronic cough with pinkish bloody liquid is very is common in the people who have heart failure.

In the heart failure body doesn’t get enough oxygen. This can be a symptom of sudden breath loss which also a serious heart disease.

3. Swelling in some parts like ankles, leg, and feet

When heart isn’t pumping enough blood throughout the body, then the blood vessel leaks into the tissue and lower parts are most affected due to gravity. This condition is also called peripheral edema.

These can be also due to hypertension, malfunction of liver and pregnancy. But it’s also common in the people with heart disease.

4. Loss of appetite, and nausea

Heart disease patients have sown nausea, a lack of appetite or both.

This is due to build up fluid around the liver and intestine, which interfere with proper digestion.

These symptoms are usually accompanied by abdominal pain, feeling of a bloated or upset stomach.

Abdominal cramps are extremely common right before a heart attack.

5. Anxiety

A study by Heart Association has found that who suffer from extreme anxiety in early age are prone to developing the heart disease.

This can be caused by a stressful lifestyle or different problem like panic attacks.

Anxiety can rapidly increase your heart rate, which increases blood pressure.

For the long term, anxiety can cause coronary heart disease.

6. Fainting

Experiencing temporary loss of consciousness known as syncope, is very common in heart patients.

If the heart isn’t working properly, then the organ doesn’t get sufficient oxygen and our brain is also affected by this.

Narrowing or blocked artery can result can cause a fatal condition called cardiac syncope.

7. Skin becomes paler

If you are naturally pale this doesn’t mean that you have heart problems.

But sudden pale can be a result of lack of blood due to the heart which is not working properly.

8. Skin Rashes

In a different study, it is found that eczema and shingle are the higher risk factors of developing heart disease.

9. Sudden fatigue

This can be the main symptom, indicating that you are near to the heart attack.

This fatigue showed up usually more in women. 70% of women showed that they felt extremely tired before they get a heart attack.

10. Excessive sweating

Excessive sweating can be signs of a heart attack. This symptom also is seen more often in women than in men.

People who are experiencing flu-like symptoms, having clammy skin and sweat regardless of air temperature.

Areas that sweat the most are palm, top of the head, feet, and chest.

11. Chest pain

If the pain starts from the center of the chest and last longer than a few minutes or goes away and return.

Or this pain spreads over the arm, neck, back or stomach, this called chest pain.

Chest pain occurs because there isn’t enough blood flowing to the heart.

Type cardiovascular diseases

Your heart is a muscular pump which required arteries and some other parts like aorta to supply oxygenated blood. if any kind of abnormality or defect or disorder occurs in these parts, this called cardiovascular disease.

1. Coronary artery disease (heart attack)

It’s also known as ischaemic heart disease. In this, we have poor blood flow to the heart when in the vein plaque.

This reduces the flow of the blood for the heart and this lead to the acute myocardial infarction (heart attack) where the tissues are damaged in the heart due to the lack of oxygen.

This causes severe pain in the chest and spreading over the shoulder, which called angina due to loss of blood supply to the heart.

Two types of angina stable and unstable angina

angina stable and unsatble, heart diseases

Stable angina:- Due to stable plaque chest pain comes due to exertion.

Unstable angina:- this is due to unstable plaque. The heart attack is also associated with this because the heart attack is due to the sudden blockage of a blood vessel which can also cause sudden death.

2. Heart failure

When heart unable to maintain the strong blood flow and pump around the body.

Heart failure can be caused by many heart and body condition such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, vasculitis etc. This can cause tiredness, shortness of breath and resist physical

Heart failure is divided into three types

1. Right side heart failure

Right side heart failure is usually due to left side failure and in this situation, our heart fails to pump blood out in the right direction.

In this blood can back up in other tissue, such as the abdomen, liver causing congestion.

2. Left-sided heart failure

The left side heart contains oxygenated blood from the lung. In Left-sided heart failure oxygenated blood cannot be pumped out from the heart to the rest of the body.

So blood can back flow in lung, lung vein which can lead to shortness of breath

3. Congestive heart failure

In Congestive heart failure involves both left and right heart failure, which can cause congestion in lung and abdominal area and pulmonary edema.

3. Cardiomyopathy

Cardiomyopathy involves the muscles of the heart. In this, the muscles of the heart become enlarged, thickened or stiff which reduces the effectiveness of the heart and can result in the heart failures.

Cardiomyopathy is also three types

1. Dilated Cardiomyopathy

In this less blood is pumped out from the heart because ventricles become weakened and enlarged which can result in the systolic heart failure.

2. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

When less blood is pumped out from the heart because the ventricles can’t fully relax and can problem in diastole. This can lead to diastolic heart failure.

Heart inner parts such as ventricle and ventricle muscles become thick, thus this prevents heart proper filling of the blood. This prevents the heart from resting.

3. Restrictive cardiomyopathy

In this when the ventricles (lower chamber of the heart) too rigid to expand as they filled with blood.

Pumping ability may be normal, but it’s hard to get enough blood.

4. Aortic diseases

These are of two types

1. Aortic aneurysm

In this, we have an abnormal widening of the aorta as an aortic aneurysm (enlargement of aorta 1.5 times than the normal size).

This result weakens the aortic wall and can form plaque formation which can cause problems in the functioning of the heart.

2. Aortic dissection

in this blood fills the walls of the aorta vessels and this can be due to abnormality or disruption in the aortic vessel walls which allowing the blood to accumulate.

5. Peripheral vascular disease

The aorta peripheral vascular disease is basically a result of plaque formation in the peripheral vasculature from atherosclerosis.

This can cause the obstruction of large arteries which supply blood to the peripheries. This can cause renal stenosis etc.

6. Valvulitis

This is the valvular disease of the heart like Inflammation of the valve.

The most common cause of the inflammation of the valve is rheumatic heart disease.

Where the permanent damage to the heart muscles mainly the valves cause by rheumatic fever.

Some other valvulitis disease which always, do not involve inflammation of the valve such as aortenosis, aortic regurgitation, mitral stenosis, and mitral regurgitation.

7. Pericarditis

Irritation and swelling in the pericardium, which is a thin sac-like membrane surrounding the heart.

It usually doesn’t last long. A sharp chest pain associated with Pericarditis.

reicrdium, cardiovascular diseases.

8. Congenital heart disease

Abnormality or disorder of the heart or the central blood vessel which present at birth.

It is the leading cause of death in the child’s first year of life.

Prevention of heart disease

You can prevent heart disease by adopting healthy life style.

1. Eat healthily

Eating healthy is the main key to preventing heart diseases.

You should eat heart-healthy foods that are low in fats, rich in nutrients, fiber, and protein.

2. Exercise for at least 3 hours a week

Physical exercise has tons of benefits to your health, especially to your heart and it improves your blood circulation a well as strengthening your heart.

You can do aerobic activities for at least 30 min a day. You should do moderate intensity exercise.

3. Check blood pressure time to time

You should keep your blood pressure under control. You should check your blood occasionally.

If your blood pressure is high, then you should test your blood pressure more occasionally.

The normal blood pressure reading is 120 to 80 mm of Hg.

If your ranges exceed this limit, then your risk of cardiovascular disease increases

4. Cholesterol

You should keep cholesterol under control. High cholesterol can narrow arteries and which directly increase your heart attack chances.

You should take medication, and should change your lifestyle.

If needed to lower the cholesterol you should do because this can be the main reason for the heart attack.

5. BMI should be around 25

Your BMI should maintain in the range of 25. Maximum up to 27 not more than that.

Because obese or overweight significantly increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (heart attack).

Obesity also causes other health issues like diabetes, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure.

You should always keep your weight under control.

6. Stay away from alcohol

Excessive use of alcohol can add extra calories to your diet, which can result in weight gain, which ultimately can cause heart disease.

But healthy men and women more the 65 age should take one drink a day.

7. Stay away from smoking

You should not start smoking. But if you smoke, it better you should quit.

Smoking raises your blood pressure and increases the risk of heart attack and stroke.

If you are addicted you can talk to a doctor about methods to quit smoking.

8. Control Your Diabetes

You should always keep your sugar level under control because high blood pressure can damage your blood vessel.

9. Get in touch with your friends

You should stay in touch with your family and friends. In a study, it is found that people who have more social support are less prone to heart attack.

As you grow your network it is also good for heart health too.

10. Aspirin

You should take the normal dose of aspirin which is 335 mg. It’s also slow down blood clotting speed.

It also decreases the blood clot size.

Heart diseases treatment

There are number of treatment for hear diseases.

  • Cardiopulmonary resuscitation:- The American Heart Association called it survival chain. You should learn it, at least for a loved one.
  • Angioplasty and Stents:- Angioplasty and Stents blocked arteries opened by a very little cutting. Stents can also be put during this procedure.
  • Heart Bypass Surgery:- As in the name mention bypass surgery. When coronary arteries blocked, this is treated by giving a new path to the heart.
  • Valve Disease Treatment:- Valve Disease Treatment doesn’t require much cutting of arteries. When valve needs treatment this can be treated by a surgery called balloon valvuloplasty.
  • Heart Transplant:- During Heart Transplant, the patient’s heart is replaced by a healthy heart. Donor person who has died and the family agreed to donate.
  • Left Ventricular Assist Device (LVAD):- Left Ventricular Assist Device (LVAD) is a mechanical heart, which is put inside your chest by doctors. It helps the heart to pump sufficient blood throughout the body.
  • Lead Extraction:- In Lead Extraction, leads are removed from inside your heart.
  • Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators (ICD):-Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators (ICD) is used to treat your abnormal heartbeat.
  • Pacemakers:- Pacemakers can also use to treat an abnormal heart rate. It is a small device which sends an electrical pulse to keep your heartbeat in rhythm. This can also use to treat and congestive heart failure.
  • EECP:- EECP is used to stimulate the blood vessel to develop new branches around the block arteries.

Medication for heart attack

Main characteristics of medicine that are use for cure heart disease.

  • Help to manage high blood pressure
  • Manage angina
  • Stop blood clotting
  • Manage and reduce High cholesterol

These are some medicine that your doctor may prescribe

  • Aspirin is used to help stop blood clotting,  prevent the artery from narrowing and reduce the risk of heart disease. You should take a small dose of aspirin daily
  • The antiplatelet drug can be used in place of aspirin because these are also used to stop blood clotting in blood vessels. These are ticagrelor, clopidogrel, and prasugrel.
  • Warfarin is used to treat existing clots and prevent blood clots. If you are taking warfarin you should have a regular blood test to check that you are taking the right dose.
  • Novel anticoagulant therapies (NOACs) is an anticoagulant medicine. It does not require blood testing. These medicines include rivaroxaban, dabigatran, and apixaban.
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) dilates your blood vessels and reduces the pressure from your heart. These medicines, make sure that your heart is working properly. These also increase your chances of surviving after a heart attack.
  • Angiotensin II receptor blockers may be used in place of ACE inhibitors if you get side effects. ARB and ACE work alike, both widen your blood vessel.
  • Beta-blockers makes slower your heartbeat as a result which lowers your blood pressure. These are also used to cure angina or abnormal heart rhythms.
  • Statines lower your cholesterol, which significantly reduces the chances of heart attack and stroke. It helps to stabilize the plaque in arteries. These will give to you when you are in the hospital.
  • Potassium or Magnesium electrolytes may be lost when you use diuretics. That can result in abnormal heart rate.
  • Nitrates are used to treat angina with coronary artery disease. These are used to cure blocked blood vessel.
  • Diuretics are used to get rid of unneeded water through urine. These are also called water pills. It also helps to control blood pressure.
  • Digoxin used to help the injured heart work more efficiently.

Facts about heart disease

  • About 790,000 people have heart attacks each year in the U.S. alone. Out of which 580,000 have their first attack rest of having a heart attack in their early life.
  • Alone in the US, almost 14 Million Americans have a history of a heart attack.
  • Silent attacks do not have a recognizable symptom. It is more common in diabetic patients who are above the age of 75.
  • Women under age of 50 have double chances to die with of heart attack than men of the same age.
  • Chewing an uncoated aspirin can help to reduce the damage to the heart muscles during a heart attack.
  • 20% of heart attacks silent. The main cause of silent attacks is Coronary artery disease (CAD).
  • It is predicted that almost 23 million people will die from heart disease globally by 2030.
  • In the US, heart disease is the main cause of the death of women.
  • Christmas day is the most common day of the heart attack.
  • 25% of deaths caused by a heart attack in the united states every year which is 610,000 deaths.
  • It is estimated that 17.9 million people died from 2016 worldwide which was 31% of all global deaths. And 85% of deaths due to heart attack and stroke.
  • Most of the heart disease can be prevented by avoiding tobacco, unhealthy diet and obesity.
  • In 2103 to 2014, total direct and indirect cost of heart disease in the alone USA was an estimated around $333. billion.


If you notice any sign you shouldn’t ignore it. You should immediately consult your doctor because nothing is precious than your life.

Definitely, these tips will help you to fight against heart diseases. You should knowledge about these facts which we discussed above.

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