depression, Depression | Types, Symptoms, causes and Treatment

Depression | Types, Symptoms, causes and Treatment

Depression is a leading cause of disability in the world. Depression is a mental illness so it is a lot harder to understand than normal diseases like cholesterol, heart diseases, etc.

But most of the people are confused between having depression and just feeling depressed. Everyone at some point in life feels depressed for losing a job, having a bad grade, even a rainy day can bring a feeling of sadness. When circumstances change and sadly gone this called feeling depressed.

But clinical depression is different, it is a medical disorder and it won’t go away just because you wanted to.

It lingers for at least two consecutive weeks and significantly interferes with one’s ability to work and play. Depression can have a lot of different symptoms

What are depression and anxiety?

Anxiety and depression are two different phenomena but they are related. If someone is very anxious for an extended period of time. It started to interfere in a lot of things to do like school performance, in a relationship, marriage, etc. these are chronic anxiety.

Most people have that high-level anxiety would also start to experience depression due to the hopeless scenario and helpless to do anything. Due to anxious for a long period of time the person started to depress.

But at some point anxiety and depression need to be treated.

Depression is not just behavioral symptoms. It has a physical structure in the brain. Changes in the brain can be seen in X-Ray vision this includes smaller frontal lobe and hippocampus volume.

More in microscale depression is associated with a few things the abnormal transmission and depletion of certain neurotransmitters.

Especially serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. Neuroscientist still doesn’t have a complete picture of what causes depression.

It seems to have to do with the complex interaction between genes and environment. But we don’t have the tool to calculate the depression where and when it shows up?

The science behind depression

In past depression was often described a simple chemical imbalance in the brain. Scientists believe that a lack of the neurotransmitter serotonin was to blame which often refer to feel good chemical.

However, the only real evidence for this was that when some depressed people prescribed a drug which increases serotonin level it alleviates their symptoms.

But in recent years scientist began to notice that brain cell growth and connection may actually play a larger role.

When the doctor tries to look brain of the depressed person then study shows that the hippocampus tends to be much smaller than the average person. Other areas of the brain physically also affected.

But this reason particularly controls memory and emotion. The longer the person has been depressed the smaller the hippocampus become. The cells and connection literally deteriorate.

It tells that the stress may be the main reason for decreasing the neuron in that reason.

In study is shown that when this reason of the brain regenerated and new neurons stimulated mood improves.

This why serotonin-based drug help some people because it promotes the release of the other chemical which automatically stimulates the growth of the new neuron cells.

So some scientist believes that our focus should be on the drug which directly affects neurogenesis.

In one particular study found that variation in serotonin transporter gene leaves the individual more vulnerable to depression.

Every individual has to copy of the gene, one from each parent. And these genes can be short or long.

After collecting data from various subjects the study reveals that 33% of individuals with one short version and one long become depressed after stressful life events and people with two short genes fared even worse.

On the other hands, those with two long genes were much less likely to become depressed with similar life stress.

The true cause of the depression has to be figured out precisely yet. But you should remember that depression is a disease with a biological basis along with psychology and social implication. It is not a weakness that everyone should get over this

Types of Depression

There are different types of depression and their symptoms can be seen easily.

1. Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder

If you tend to have a continuous outburst of temper either physical or verbal, and it happens three times or more a week. That is one of the symptoms of the disruptive mood dysregulation disorder.

The other symptoms that you feel sad and moody, beside anger three times a week or having a severe outburst. It’s more likely you have this disorder, if these symptoms occurred for more then years or if the symptom started before the age of 10.

2. Major depressive disorder

This is also known as clinical depression. Those with this disorder may have an episode for a long period of time.

While others may have an episode once in their life. People having the Major depressive disorder has the following symptom nearly for  two-week span and nearly arise every day.


  • Feeling hopeless, sad or dumb.
  • A decreasing motivation for the thing they usually used to like.
  • Increase or decrease in weight.
  • Changes in sleep.
  • Fatigue
  • Unable to concentrate
  • Forgetfulness
  • Self-harm.

3. Persistent depressive disorder

This is an ongoing depressive disorder. Symptoms are no very clear. But symptom arises every day in adults for two years and for one year in children and adolescents.


  • Appetite change
  • Low energy.
  • Change in sleep cycle
  • Poor self-esteem
  • Bad concentration
  • Feeling of hopelessness

4. Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

Premenstrual Dysphoric disorder found in 3 – 8% of women. The symptom occurs during the menstrual cycle, and requires diagnosis if five of the symptoms present.

Symptoms of PMDD

  • Increase sensitivity
  • Mood swing  
  • Lack of interest in the activity
  • Feeling of helplessness
  • Anxiety
  • Tired and sluggish
  • An excessive amount of sleep
  • Bloating
  • Joint pain
  • Tender breast and swelling

5. Medication-induced Depressive disorder

This disorder present during the use of medication or during substance abuse


  • Hopelessness
  • Bad temper
  • No interest
  • Depressive episodes.
  • Irritability.

6. Seasonal affective disorder

If you feel good in spring. But start feeling depression, sleepiness and weight gain in the winter. Then this can be the seasonal affective disorder. This may be due to the disturbance circadian rhythm of our body.

Early Sign and Symptoms that you are suffering from depression.

These are some common sign of depression and you can recognize easily.

1. You constantly feel tired and down

Feeling a little down from time to time is normal. But when you start feeling hopeless and don’t want to a get out bed for a day, then you started entering into this dangerous situation.

According to experts, if you feel a lack of energy lasts for a day on end. Even though your routine hasn’t changed much and you feel tired as soon as you wake up. This may be your body’s way of telling you are depressed.

You should analyze your situation thoroughly and take it seriously as constant fatigue is one of the main symptoms of the depression.

2. Your self-esteem at the lowest possible level

With depression and constant fatigue, you might start seeing yourself useless. You constantly grow in the past and your mind will be flooded with the memories of every stupid mistake you have ever made.

You probably see them as proof that you are completely worthless. Our suicidal thought is a very serious problem of depression that should never be taken lightly

Remember there is help out there. Call your local emergency number can help you out.

3. You have concentration and money problems

According to doctors, when you are depressed, your concentration suffers for big time too. You start forgetting about important things and have trouble remembering names and other details.

Listening to someone talk and reading a book become very difficult because you cannot focus what’s going on.

Making a decision is incredibly difficult too. Since you just can’t put finger on anything or ignore this hopeless feeling inside of you.

However, mental fog alone may not signal depression. If only this sign applies to you then chances are that depression isn’t the issue.

4. You have troubles sleeping

Another part of your life that significantly changes when you have depression, is your sleeping patterns. This can be in the form of Insomnia or sleeping for longer hours.

When you are suffering from depression you crave more sleep even after a full night’s rest. You have no energy and you feel like you can spend the whole day in bed, it’s not like a fun day like watching a movie and surround by snacks.

We are talking about lying bed in all day doing nothing with no desire to get up. If this sigh showing for you. You should alert and need some help.

5. Your weight changes

With all the emotional rollercoaster you go through when you have depression. The main thing depression affects is your weight.

You can go either way for you can gain several pounds and can lose weight drastically.

This could be due to constantly feeling starve no matter how much you eat or stop feeling hunger at all. Just like an emotional state, your eating habits become unstable.

Expert says that, if there is an unintentional change of more than 5% of your body weight within a month it could be a sign of depression.

6. Nothing can brings you pleasure

Your favorite food, TV shows, and video game once brought you so much enjoyed, is now annoy you. Even people that you adore and love hanging out with, don’t seem to do it anymore.

You constantly bored, tired and not desire to do your hobby and to meet up with your best friend. You can also lose your interest in sex life. The symptom of major depression includes a decrease in your sex drive.

First, you have to find out what is the real reason behind it if there is no major reason then more likely depression behind it

7. You experience mood swings

When you depressed, you constantly feel sad, anxious or irritated and you can’t explain why? You suddenly become extremely short temper with a lack of basic tolerance, everything and everyone annoys you.

It becomes scary when it turns into a reckless as an attempt to get rid of all these emotions. But it’s not like you just take off all the time.

You go through mood swings like rapid breathing, sweating and extreme nervousness, are the especially alarming symptoms. Anxiety and panic attack associated with severe depression.

8. Your health deteriorates

Emotional outburst and a constant feeling of hopelessness through not only affect your daily routine but overall health too.

It is really common for depressed people to suddenly start experiencing aches, and pain in most frequently in joint and back. The digestive problem is a huge concern in this situation too.

These symptoms are not going without treatment because your mental state is also involved. Earlier you can deal with your depression easier it will be for you to get back to your normal healthy.

Cause of the depression

There are many factors that can increase your chances of depression but no one know exact cause.

1. Brain chemistry imbalance

Depression is believed to be caused by brain chemistry imbalance which is involved in mood regulation.

The neurotransmitter is the chemical which helps the brain to communicate with the different part of the brain. And imbalance or shortage in these chemicals can cause clinical depression.

2. Female sex hormones

It is found that women suffer from major depression twice as men do. Most women would more liklely to suffer from this depressive disorder when they are in the reproductive years. This may be due to hormonal factors.

Women are prone to depressive disorder during perimenopause, menstrual period and childbirth. These risks are a decline when they go through menopause.

3. Drug

Drugs, alcohol and even some prescription drugs have linked to depression. Drugs that include citations, stimulants, anticonvulsants, benzodiazepines, beta-blockers, and corticosteroids can lead you to depression.

If you feel depressed, then you should talk to your physician and doctor.

4. Due to the weather

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is usually associated with winter blues, and it tantalizes about 5 percents of Americans. But less than one percent of people also affected by depression in the summer.

Warm weather arises, our body feels delay adjusting to the new season. Instead of enjoying daily life, our body has had time to adjusting itself due to which imbalances in brain chemistry and the hormone melatonin occur.

5. Money problem

The money problem is a very intense, stressful situation in everyone’s life. But it finds that a lack of money.

The money problem is not caused by depression but constantly in being poor or live in money problem cause depression.

6. Due to a lack of motivation

Due to depressed people feel purposeless and lost their aim. in depressed people specifically, increase their valuation costs along with the decrease in satisfaction from their normal daily activities and interactions. And they start feeling a lack of motivation.

7. Relationship breakup

A relationship is hard and very emotional seeing them ending can start feeling depressed.

It’s very difficult for someone, go away from you when you were so close. It’ll initiate feeling that you aren’t worthy and you will never find love again.

8. End of favorite TV shows

When someone is very important to you, you watch it daily and it’s coming to an end, then you will start depressed and started feeling sadness. This can’t be the major cause but it contributes if it adds with other causes.

9. Poor body image

Men and women want the ideal body and they compare their body with another body. When they are not happy with their body image. Most women make negative with their own body image, this often leads them to suicide.

10. Sleep habits

There is a strong relationship between sleep and depression. Poor sleep habits can cause depression, and depression causes sleep disturbances. Take proper rest at night, sleep at least 7 hours a day.

11. Overthinking

Sadness and stress are part of everyone’s life, but some people overthinking about a stressful situation. some people overthink about the situation and try to get more and more detail about the situation this leads them depression trap.

Treatment of depression

Depression is treatable mental condition. There are some medication and therapy that can treat depression very effectively. These are some treatment for depression

1. Psychotherapy

Psychology or talking therapies for depression include cognitive-behavioral therapy and interpersonal psychotherapy. In most of the cases of depression, psychotherapy is the first option to treat this.

CBT can be delivered in individual sessions with a therapist, face-to-face, in groups, or over the telephone. Interpersonal therapy helps patients to identify emotional problems that affect relationships and how these affect mood and can be changed.

His therapy is very effective this can help patients in many ways like

  • Understand the current situation and can adjust according to the situation.
  • This effectively replaces a negative thought with a positive thought.
  • It helps to understand experiences and the relationship with your partner which also give positive effects.
  • Easily find a better way and can solve.
  • Try to concentrate on the real goal of life.
  • Can make easy to tolerate and teach how to handle a stressful situation.

2. Medication

There are many anti-depressant drugs are available by a doctor. Drugs come into use for moderate to severe depression.

But these are only for adolescents because it has side effects on children A warning from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) says that “antidepressant medications may increase suicidal thoughts or actions in some children, teenagers, and young adults within the first few months of treatment.

  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
  • Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors
  • Atypical antidepressants
  • Tricyclic antidepressants
  • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors

These are some drug that is used as an antidepressant.

3. Electroconvulsive therapy

Some people aren’t treated with the above two treatments so there can be Electroconvulsive therapy is more effective. In this therapy, the current passed through the brain, which can affect neurotransmitters to e relieve your brain.

4. Transcranial magnetic stimulation

This therapy can be used if the person didn’t respond to antidepressants. In treatment, the coil is placed against your scalp and try to stimulate your nerve that can regulate mood.

5. Other therapy

Other therapy like exercise and meditation can also help you escape from mild depression.

What can you do?

These steps you should take or recommend to your loved person if you find them in depression. Physical activity and social activity can reduce the symptoms of depression.

1. Physical activity

Physical exercise can help you better than any depressant. You haven’t to do a lot of exercises but you can do 30 min walking in 4 to 5 times a week. Patients are prescribed the exercise did just as well as those who take the medication.

This also reduces the chance to get depressed again. Exercise is so important to you because of this increase the activity of the important nerve like serotonin and dopamine.

All the anti-depressant do exact same work increase the level of the serotonin and dopamine. Why you take those drugs when you can do this with a simple exercise.

2. Omega-3 fatty acids

Omega-3 fatty acids can swing your mood. It found that low level of Omega-3 fatty acids can bring you to depression.

Omega 3 EFAs EPA & DHA are particular are very important to the development of brain development. Omega-3 fatty acids have a lot of benefits over your health.

3. Sunlight

Sunlight is very essential for vitamin-D. This vitamin comes from your skin when it is exposed to the sun. it primarily responsible for your bone health, immune system and muscle health.

However, researchers also found that lack of vitamin-D will cause a variety of diseases, cancer, diabetes, and especially mental health. Vitamin -D is actually becoming a very big problem nowadays because so many people spending more and more indoor.

Nowadays about 40% of the population have a vitamin-D deficiency at some degree.

Most important in our body needs sunlight in order to set a circadian rhythm right. Thus a body internal clock. It makes sure that you feel tired at the right time and make sure that you get certain hormone at the right time and make sure that you feel sleepy at the right time.

And all these problems have a direct connection to depression. Imagine you feel tired all the day and unable to sleep these are the common problem that most people of the depression have.

The only problem is that this clock needs to be adjusted all of the time. Walking under the sun only for 10 min can help to reset this clock.

5. Eat good food

Good food is good for health and mental health. Eat well-balanced food will keep you energetic and will make your mood better.

6. Anti-Ruminative Activity

If you are continuously thinking about the past, the more likely you are to get depressed. You might think this completely normal to think about the past. But in small quantity it is fine.

But if you ruminate repeated many times about the bad thing that happened a year ago these types of thought can bring you into depression. So should do Engaging activity like club, sports, parties etc.

7. Social connection

This is the most important factor. We are social creatures and we always stuck in a group. We spend the majority of the day spend with other humans. But now this is not the case anymore.

A strong social connection is vital for a healthy life. In fact, a recent study conducted by the University of Michigan found that the bonding of the other human release a sudden hormone that reduces stress and anxiety. Researchers have also found that social isolation will cause your brain to shrink.


Depression is not just behavioral symptoms. It has a physical structure in the brain. Changes in the brain can be seen in X-Ray vision this includes smaller frontal lobe and hippocampus volume. You should take depression as medical condition and you should see your doctor properly.

Depression is different types and this can cause due to many factors but depression is treatable if you see your doctor.

What you think about depression? Comment below

[expand title=”Source”][/expand]

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *