Diabetes is a metabolic diseases that increases the sugar level in your blood. Insulin hormone control sugar level in your body by moving sugar from the blood into your cells, but in this condition,our body doesn’t make enough insulin or not working properly for a long time.
Generally, the pancreas produces the insulin in your body which help to maintain the sugar level in your blood. When Pancreas releases very little or no insulin for a period of time, the sugar level in your blood increase which known as sugar.
There are many types of diabetes but these types of diabetes found in most of the cases.
1. Type 1 diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is that type of diabetes in which very small quantity or no insulin is produced by pancreas cell. This is characterized by the loss of insulin-producing beta cells which lead to insulin deficiency.
Majority of type 1 diabetes, immune-mediated, in which t cell-mediated autoimmune attacks, cause loss of insulin-producing beta cells and insulin. It contributes to 10% of total diabetes cases in Europe and North-America.
Type 1 diabetes can found in every age people but mostly found in children.
Type 1 diabetes is partly inherited by multiple genes and certain genotype. It can be triggered by an environmental factor such as a viral infection
2. Type 2 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder which can be characterized by high blood sugar level, lack of insulin and insulin resistance. It is the defective responsiveness of the body to the insulin receptor, but its specific defects are unknown.
Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes mellitus. The important factor in the development of type 2 diabetes are genetics, obesity, physically inactive, stress etc.
Your diet influences the development of type 2 diabetes. Type 2 Diabetes is preventable by the embrace of a healthy lifestyle.
3. Gestational diabetes
Gestational diabetes is a condition in which women develop high blood sugar without developing diabetes during pregnancy.
Gestational diabetes resembles with type 2 diabetes because this is also developed due to the body’s abnormal responsiveness to insulin, insulin secretion or insulin resistance.
After delivery symptom of Gestational diabetes may decrease or improve. Gestational diabetes can be treated fully but need medical supervision. Management may require, blood sugar monitoring, dietary change or insulin.
Untreated Gestational diabetes can damage mother or fetus health. Risks for the baby may include higher birth weight, abnormalities in the central nervous system.
But who Gestational diabetes are at a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the future.
4. Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY)
MODY refers to any hereditary forms of diabetes caused by mutation autosomal dominant gene. It also refers to monogenic diabetes.
It is caused by a mutation in a single gene in contrast to the common type of diabetes type1 and type 2 diabetes caused by multiple genes. Mostly monogenic diabetes is inherited.
Monogenic diabetes mostly affects young people. In this body is less able to make insulin.
Prediabetes is the prediabetic stage of Diabetes Mellitus. In this, you don’t need a diagnosis, but blood sugar is abnormally high. It is not a disease.
6. Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults(LADA)
LADA is a disorder in which the progression of autoimmune β-cell. In short, we can call it a slowly progressing autoimmune disease.
LADA occurs when the pancreas doesn’t make enough insulin. But unlike type 1 it doesn’t require insulin after 6 months.
The symptoms may depend upon how much sugar level is increased as compared to a normal blood sugar level. Prediabetes and type 2 diabetes patients may not experience symptom initially at type 1 diabetes symptoms can be more severe and come quickly.
- Weight loss
- Increased urination
- Increased in hunger
- Increased in thirst
- Blurred vision
- Slow healing of cut
- Itchy skin
- More prone to infection such as skin infection, vaginal infection
- Dry mouth
- Lack of interest in sex, erectile dysfunction, or impotence.
Symptoms of type 2 diabetes
- You have frequent yeast infection such as under the breast, between toes and fingers and around sex organ such vagina
- Pain in your legs or feet
Symptoms of type 1 diabetes symptoms
- Weight loss because your body doesn’t get energy from your food and it will start absorbs your muscles.
Some diabetic alarming sign or emergencies
Diabetes directly affects your nervous system which can show some symptoms such as confusion, aggressiveness and some time brain damage or death. Low blood sugar levels may show dunking like symptoms, which may sometimes easily be mistaken with drunkenness.
Diabetes can damage your blood vessel and double the risk of cardiovascular diseases. About 3 out 4 of the deaths of diabetic patients due to coronary heart diseases.
Primarily diabetes damages your blood vessel, nerves, kidneys, damage to eyes. Diabetes can cause gradual vision loss, if not treated eventually lead to blindness.
Diabetes damage your kidney which can cause some serious problems, chronic kidney problem, requiring dialysis or even kidney transplant.
Diabetes damage your nerves and this condition known as diabetic neuropathy, which is the most common complication of diabetes.
Symptoms of diabetic neuropathy are pain, tingling, change in behavior, confusion, etc.
1. Diabetes retinopathy or eye damage
Diabetes can cause visual disability and blindness. Diabetes can damage small blood vessels in the back layer of the eye, which can lead to progressive vision loss or even blindness.
2. Kidney damage
Diabetes can lead to kidney failure or death by damaging small blood vessels in the kidney.
3. Nerve damage
Diabetes causes nerve damage by decreases blood flow and hyperglycemia to a nerve by damaging small blood vessels which can cause sensory loss. It is the most common complication caused by diabetes.
4. Cardiovascular disease
Hyperglycemia can damage your blood vessels by clogging of arteries. Narrow arteries can lead to decreased flow to the heart, causing a heart attack or to the brain causing a stroke.
5. Sexual dysfunction
Diabetes can increase the sexual sensation of men toward women. It occurs when nerve and blood vessel damage.
Most of the people, about 25% with diabetes people don’t know that they have diabetes. You might be one of them.
Risk factors of type 1 diabetes
1. Family history
Your risk increases to get type 2 diabetes if your blood relative has type 1 diabetes.
2. Residence of autoimmune disease
Type 1 diabetes is associated with autoimmune diseases such as Grave’s disease or vitiligo.
Some environment may also play an important factor in the past few decades.
- Infection several viruses have been implicated in diabetes.
- Higher birth weight or infant growth
- Not breastfeeding
Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age, but it is seen mainly in the age between 4-7 years and 4-10 years.
Risk factors of diabetes type 2
Smoking is usually associated with a serious health condition such as heart disease and cancer as well as it also higher the risk of the type 2 disease.
2. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
PCOS is a medical condition which affects your ovaries. Ovaries are part of women that release and store eggs ready to be fertilized. Before releasing by ovary each egg develops in a fluid filled with swelling called follicle. In PCOS, eggs cannot be fertilized and the follicle becomes a cyst.
Women who have Polycystic Ovary Syndrome at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
3. Motionless or sedentary lifestyle
If you are living motionless life or spend most of the time seated, living a sedentary lifestyle increases your risk of being patients with type 2 diabetes.
Sedentary lifestyle increase
- Working for a long time by sitting at one place.
- Sitting or studying at home for a long period of time.
- Watching tv or playing video games.
- Bad eating habit, but no exercise enough.
4. High blood pressure
Having high blood pressure not only damage your blood pressure but also linked to the increased risk of type 2 diabetes.
As you get an older risk of type 2 diabetes also increases. If you become overweight or tend to less exercise this increase significantly your chances to get type 2 diabetes as you get older.
6. Family history
If one of your parents or sibling has type 2 diabetes, then you more likely to get type 2 diabetes.
The national center for health statistics found that 30% of adults are obese. Greater weight means greater the chances of developing type 2 diabetes or insulin resistance.
8. Not getting restless sleep
People with poor sleep quality or with moderate sleep apnea have 3 times more risk to get type 2 diabetes than normal people.
9. High cholesterol
Risk factors for Gestational Diabetes
- Unhealthy eating
- High and unhealthy cholesterol
- The family history of type diabetes
- High blood pressure
- Older mom
- Physically active
- Being pregnant with multiple babies.
- olycystic ovary syndrome
1. Blood test
The primary test for type 1 diabetes is a blood test. In blood test 200 mg/DL or higher consider diabetes.
2. A1C test
This shows the average blood sugar level for the past few months. This show average sugar percentage with hemoglobin. An A1C level of more than 6.5% on two or more different indicates diabetes.
3. In the morning without eating anything blood sugar test
Blood sugar sample is taken in the morning without eating anything. Blood sugar greater than 126 mg/DL.
4. Blood test for antibodies.
immunoglobulin test for checking for the level of immunoglobulins.
You can also test
5. Urine tests
A urine sample is taken in the presence of ketones.
6. Glucose tolerance test
This test is more common during pregnancy. This test is taken in the morning without eating anything and after drinking a sugary liquid at the doctor’s office. Blood sugar level less than 140 mg/dL is normal, 140 mg/dL-199 mg/DL and above 200 mg/dL is considered diabetes.
This specifically common for type 2 diabetes patients.
7. Home test
You can also check the blood sugar level at home such as
- A pedometer (recommended for you) feature really cool you should check at least.
Causes of type 1 diabetes
1. The exact cause of diabetes is unknown, but it is thought that antibodies which affect your immune system can be the cause of this disease. Type diabetes occurs when antibodies or infection destroys the insulin-producing cells, pancreas.
2. Family history is also an important factor in some type 1 diabetes. Several genes related to this condition. But not everyone who has type 1 diabetes develops this condition.
Causes of type 2 diabetes
1. Overweight and physically inactive
You are at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes if you are physically inactive or overweight. Overweight people are more likely to become insulin resistant. Heart disease and blood vessel disease are also linked to overweight. So, maintain your weight in a normal range.
2. Insulin resistance
Insulin resistance is a condition in which liver, muscle and fat cells do not use insulin well. So your body needs more insulin, at first pancreas make more insulin, but over time pancreas cannot fulfill the demand. And glucose level rise in the blood, which causes type diabetes.
3. Family history
This is the same as in type 1 diabetes, certain gene makes you more prone to develop type 2 diabetes. This disease run family who is often African Americans, American Indians, Asian Americans, Pacific Islanders etc.
Causes of gestational diabetes
1. Insulin resistance
The hormone produced by the placenta can make your insulin resistance which occurs during late pregnancy. gestational diabetes occurs when the pancreas can’t make enough insulin.
Women with overweight are more likely to become insulin resistant.
Other causes which can cause diabetes
2. Hormonal disease
Some hormonal disease too much release of certain hormones which can cause insulin resistance. Some hormonal diseases are
Cushing’s syndrome cause too much release of stress hormone (cortisol).
Acromegaly body produces too much growth hormone.
Hyperthyroidism when body too much thyroid hormone.
Body store too much iron, if not treated can damage the pancreas and other organs.
Some medicine can also harm they can also disrupt the work of insulin such as niacin, water pills, anti-seizure drugs, psychiatric drugs, anti-rejection medicines etc.
- Fasting plasma level at or above 126 mg/dl.
- Plasma glucose at or above 200 mg/dl
- Casual plasma glucose at or above 11.1 mmol/l (200 mg/dl).
- Glycated hemoglobin at or above 48 mmol/Mol
- Fasting plasma glucose test
- Glucose tolerance test.
- Random glucose test.
Treatment for type 1 diabetes
Treatment of diabetes is depend on what type of diabetes you have.
1. Taking insulin
I. Taking insulin with injection
Insulin cannot be taken orally because stomach enzymes will break it down.
II. Taking with An insulin pump
You need to wear a device which is about cell phone size. A tube connects a reservoir of insulin to a catheter which is under the skin of your stomach. It releases insulin as your body need.
2. Closed-loop insulin delivery
In this artificial pancreas are approved for the people with type 1 diabetes who are older than 14. With this implanted device is linked to a glucose monitor which check sugar level after 1 minute and release the correct amount of insulin.
Some additional medication for type 1 diabetes.
I. Medication for high blood pressure
The doctor may prescribe you angiotensin-converting enzyme or inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers if you have high blood pressure.
II. Drug for cholesterol
Cholesterol becomes more dangerous with diabetes because it significantly increases the risk of heart disease.
4. Track blood sugar level
Check your blood sugar multiple time a day, this will decide what kind of therapy you need. You should take these blood tests before a meal, before bed, or before exercise.
5. Monitor your diet
You should track your diet if you have diabetes. Your diet should concentrate on nutritious, high fiber, food, and low-fat food such as fruits, whole grain, vegetables.
6. Physical activity
You should do aerobic exercise daily basis at least no tow days without exercise. Exercise lowers the blood sugar level.
Treatment or management of type 2 diabetes
1. Weight loss
Weight loss can prevent you from type 2 diabetes. If your BMI is greater than 30. You need to decrease 10% weight if you want to look significant impact on blood sugar level.
2. Healthy eating habit
Healthy eating habit can prevent you from the number of diseases. There is no specific diet for diabetes. But your diet should be around more fiber, low saturated fat, fewer carbohydrates more vegetable and foods, etc.
3. Physical activity
People need daily exercise 30 to 60 minutes exercise a day for minimum of 5 days a week.
4. Track your blood sugar level
Depending upon your treatment, you need to track your blood sugar level every now and then.
There are several anti-diabetic medications available. First medicine is recommended is Metformin that decreases mortality.
If it is not effective other medication thiazolidinediones, sulfonylureas, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs, and SGLT2 inhibitors.
Vitamin D supplementation may also improve markers of HbA1c and insulin resistance
Weight loss surgery is very effective in those who are obese. Some people are able to maintain a normal blood sugar level without any medication after surgery.
6. During pregnancy
Women with type 2 diabetes during pregnancy need to alter treatment. Many women require insulin therapy.
3. Treatment for Gestational diabetes
- Checking your blood sugar level frequently You will be given a kit so you can check your blood sugar level. Monitoring your sugar level during pregnancy can help you to treat it fully.
- Insulin injection is recommended when your blood sugar level is too high, not controlled with metformin or have too much fluid in your womb.
4. Treatment of Monogenic Diabetes
- Insulin in case of gout and kidney cysts