slee apnea, sleep apnea treatment, sleep apnea cause

Sleep Apnea – Types, Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

Sleep apnea | Works, Test, Types, Symptoms, Cause, Treatment, Machine, Pillow, Risk Factors, Facts, Summary.

Overview

Apnea in ‘sleep apnea’ refers to pause breathing that lasts for at least 10 seconds.

More than 10 million American have sleep apnea. Sleep apnea increases the risk of heart disease, memory problem, and others.

Sleep Apnea definition

It is a serious sleep disorder in which breathing pauses or upper airway blocked repeatedly during sleep at night.

If you snore loudly or feel tired after a full night’s sleep, then you might have sleep apnea.

This may cause tiredness or the experience of sleepiness during the day.

Sleep Apnea icd 10 code or diagnosed code

ICD-10-CM Diagnosis Code G47.33

How sleep apnea work?

When breathing is paused or airway blocked, the level of carbon dioxide builds up in the bloodstream. C

hemosensor sense the high carbon dioxide level in the bloodstream.

Our brain signal to awaken the person which allow breathing to resume results oxygen level restore and the person will fall asleep.

Sleep apnea test

1. Nocturnal polysomnography

In this, you will hook up to the equipment that recorded lung and brain activity, breathing pattern, your heart rate, and blood oxygen while you sleep such as ElectroEncephalogram (EEG), ElectroMyogram (EMG), electrooculogram (EOG), electrocardiogram (ECG).

2. Sleep apnea online free testing

Just click here and they will ask you some questions to answer and they may tell you whether you have sleep apnea or not.

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Types of sleep apnea

Sleep apnea classified into three categories.

1. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)

The muscle of the body relaxed during sleep, in the throat, the human airway is composed of collapsible walls of soft tissues.

Due to relaxing, these tissues can collapse and obstruct breathing.

OSA can identify by paused breathing during sleep, these episodes of paused breathing typically can last 20-40 seconds.

A person with OSA is rarely aware of OSA, even upon awakening during sleep.

An individual with soft tissues around airway and narrowed airways are at high risk for OSA.

Men are more likely to have sleep apnea than women and child.

Severe OSA can cause sleep deprivation, hypoxemia, and other complications.

2. Central sleep apnea (CSA)

It is a sleep-related disorder in which the effort to breath is absent for 10-30 seconds. It is instability the body to control respiration.

Level of Carbon dioxide in the blood and the neurological feedback mechanism that controls them, do not work properly.

In this condition, a person stops breathing and then starting again.

During a pause in breathing, a person stops breathing, no struggling and no chest movement.

After this episode, the person may breath fast for a certain period.

In CSA neurological controls which controls the breathing rate fail to give the signal to inhale, causing the person to miss the cycle of breathing.

If the pause in breath for a long time, oxygen level will drop and carbon dioxide will build up. This can cause brain damage or even death.

3. Mixed sleep apnea

It is the combination of both OSA and CSA. in mixed apnea, person’s upper airway blocked as well as brain unable to send signals to the body of breathing.

This condition generally occurs when OSA treated with CPAP.

The cause of loss of respiratory drive during sleep in OSA is unknown, but it can be due to incorrect setting of CPAP or other medical condition.

Signs and Symptoms

There are different-different symptoms for OSA and CSA.

Sign and Symptoms of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

  • Restless sleep
  • Sleepy during day
  • Loud snoring
  • Excessive day time sleeping
  • Noticeable Dry mouth or throat Feeling of choking

Signs and symptom of Central sleep apnea (CSA)

  • Lack of abdominal and thoracic movement for 10 seconds or more
  • Inability to operate thoracic muscles and diaphragm upon awakening
  • You need an urgent breath upon awakening.
  • Voice changes
  • Excessive daytime sleepiness
  • Chest pain

Cause of sleep apnea

Cause of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

  • Brain injury
  • Being overweight
  • Narrowed airway (which is a structural feature)
  • Old age
  • Using muscle relaxant such an alcohol

Cause of Central sleep apnea (CSA)

  • Brain infection, conditions of neck, stroke or brainstem.
  • Certain medication
  • Severe obesity

Treatment  

1. Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

1. Positive Air Pressure

Positive Air Pressure are following types and very effective to treat OSA.

I. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)

it provides the mild pressure on a continuous basis, which keeps the airway open when people are not able to breathe on your own.

II. Variable positive airway pressure (VPAP)

In this, the electronic circuit uses to monitor the patient’s breathing and two different types of pressure provide higher during inhalation and a lower pressure during exhalation.

This system is also used with other coexisting respiratory problems, but more expensive.

III. Nasal EPAP

It is a device which places over the nostrils to create positive airway pressure to prevent OSA and snoring etc.

IV. Automatic positive airway pressure (APAP)

It automatically adjusts the pressure and monitors an individual’s breathing and creates a positive path for breathing.

2. Surgery

This is also known as sleep surgery. These are varied according to the specific airway obstruction needs of a patient.

This is not the first choice for treating OSA. There are a number of different surgeries such as Tonsillectomy, Septoplasty, Genioglossus advancement etc. which performed by the doctor.

3. Neurostimulation

Neurostimulation is for those patients who cannot use PAP (positive airway devices).

The FDA in 2014 granted PMA (pre-market approved) for an airway stimulation system which senses the respiration and stimulates the hypoglossal nerve by sending electrical signals in order to increase muscle tone so it can prevent the collapse over the airway.

The device includes a handheld controller which makes it easier to use.

4. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA)

It is analogous in some way to surgery. In this low-frequency radio wave energy uses to target tissue, causing coagulative necrosis.

It affects at 40-70 °C. It is recognized as a simplest treatment option for mild to moderate OSA.

5. Medication

There are not sufficient evidence that can support the use of medication for OSA. but these include acetazolamide, fluoxetine, paroxetine, etc.

6. Home oximetry

It is used as a screening method for Obstructive Sleep Apnea syndrome in both obese and non-obese patients with high clinical pretest suspicion.

Treatment for Central Sleep Apnea

1. Neurostimulation

FDA has approved a pacemaker-like device called remedē system.

Thus, for the adult patients who suffer from moderate to severe central sleep apnea.

This device stimulates the nerve in the chest to send signals to large muscle, which controls breathing such as a diaphragm.

It monitors the respiratory signal and helps in restoring normal breathing.

This device is very easy to use, automatically at night and patients don’t need to wear a mask.

2. Bilevel positive airway pressure

In this device is set to two different pressure one inhalation and for exhalation which maintains the normal breathing rhythm.

These types of devices are called BiPAP.

3. Reduce a certain medication

Certain medications can cause sleep apnea, such as opioid medication e.g. Painkiller methadone, morphine, Buprenorphine.

4. CPAP

This method is also used to treat sleep apnea, involves wearing a mask. CPAP is generally the first treatment given to CSA patients.

5. Certain medication

Certain medication such as theophylline or acetazolamide can be used to stimulate the breathing.

But there is limited evidence which support medication can improve central apnea.

Some common treatment for all sleep apnea.

1. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)

As we discussed above CPAP is the most common treatment, for moderate to severe sleep apnea. In this person’s airway open during sleep by pressurizing air.

2. Weight loss

If you are overweight, this could be the main cause of your sleep apnea.

If you lose your weight, this could decrease apnea frequency and improve Apnoea–Hypopnoea Index (AHI) compared to controls

3. Nasal obstruction

Nasal congestion can cause sleep apnea so correction of nasal passages needs to perform. Turbine and Septoplasty may improve your condition.

4. Oral appliance

Oral appliance often referred to as a mandibular advancement splint, which is used for OSA, TMJ, and snoring.

American Academy of Dental Sleep Medicine and The American Academy of Sleep Medicine recommends that physicians should prescribe Oral appliance for adult patients who need treatment for primary snoring rather than patients with OSA.

5. Oral pressure therapy

This device, creates a vacuum in the mouth, to shift the soft palate and tongue forward. This device used to treat OSA it is found useful in 25-35% of people.

Sleep apnea machine  

These machines can treat your sleep apnea and loud snoring. You can buy these machines from an online store.

Just click below, at least you should check prices maybe you want to buy them in the future. These are very easy to use, you can try it.

Make sure you consult your doctor before buying it and read its guideline carefully before using it. you should visit your doctor before buy, maybe your doc suggests you an easy and cheaper way. you can buy them from amazon just click here

Sleep apnea pillow

  1. Rest up in comfort – These pillows are specifically designed for ultimate recreation and relaxation.
  2. Improve your health – Sleeping at an inclined angle with a mattress wedge is known to reduce snoring, acid reflux, allergies, breathing issues, relieve neck/back pain, snoring, release pressure on the upper back muscles and more
  3. Support your body – Support your shoulders and upper back and the bed wedge pillow promotes a better sleep position.

You buy these from amazon or at least can check rate.

Risk factors of sleep apnea  

There are many factors of sleep apnea.

1. Age

The risk of sleep apnea increases as you get older. In younger people, sleep apnea is more common in male than female. But as they age difference decrease.

2. Alcohol

Alcohol may increase relaxation of the muscle of the throat and mouth. It can also affect the muscle involved in breathing.

3. Smoking

Smoking can affect breathing, it can affect brain controls sleep, or muscle involving in breathing.

4. Unhealthy eating and lack of physical activity

Unhealthy eating and lack of physical activity lead you to obesity or overweight. Fat deposits in the airway can obstruct can cause sleep apnea.

5. Family history

Family history is also a risk factor, but a healthy lifestyle can decrease this risk. Some of the genes related to sleep apnea are associated with the structural development of the skull and face and how brain control sleep.

6. Enlarge tongue

Enlarge tongue can block the upper airway, which can cause sleep apnea.

7. Gastroesophageal reflux

8. Sinus problems

9. Large neck.

Large neck generally has small airway, which can cause trouble during sleep.

Some fast Facts about Sleep apnea

  1. People with sleep apnea have a 30% higher risk of heart attack than those unaffected.
  2. It is estimated that OSA accompanied by daytime sleepiness affects the 3-7% of men and 2-5% of women.
  3. Sleep apnea is common in both developed and developing countries.
  4. It is estimated that 5-15% of any patients have mixed apnea.
  5. There are more 22 million Americans are suffering from sleep apnea right now.
  6. Sleep apnea is not always associated with snoring. Many sleep apnea patients don’t snore.
  7. About 20% of American adults have OSA.
  8. About 38,000 annual cardiovascular deaths are related to sleep apnea.

Summary

Sleep apnea is a serious sleep disorder in which upper airway blocked during sleep at night.

The major risk factors of sleep apnea are alcohol, smoking, age, family history, gastroesophageal reflux, sinus problems, and large neck.

There are mainly three types of sleep apnea. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA), Central sleep apnea (CSA), Mixed or complex sleep apnea.

You can identify sleep apnea with common symptoms such as Restless sleep, loud snoring, excessive daytime sleeping etc.

Cause of sleep apnea can be old age, being overweight, narrowed airway etc.

There are a number of treatments available for sleep apnea, such as CPAP, weight loss, Nasal obstruction, Oral appliance, Oral pressure therapy, etc.

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