Have you ever thought about why transgender people are born? Why they don’t born as normal, male or a female born. Is there fault to .being transgender? Let’s discuss the science of being transgender and how can we help them because they aren’t different they are the same as we are.
Chromosomes and genitals make your biological sex. But sex and gender aren’t the same things. Gender is made up of two other criteria area gender identity and gender expression.
- Genetic sex
- What does that mean if you have XY chromosomes and you are women?
- Sexual differentiation
- What we found when we look inside the brain of a transgender person?
- A gender perspective
- Gender identity
- Gender expression
- What is Transphobia?
- Gender dysphoria
- Diagnosis and treatment
- What is LGBTIQ?
- Why we should help transgender or LGBTQ?
- Facts and stats about transgender
Biological sex based on a physical factor such as hormones, chromosomes, and genitals. Most people are entirely male or female. But some people one in thousand falls between male or female. People biologically can be fall between male or female due to the SRY gene.
Chromosomes are determined to right after fertilization. When sperm cells from your father, which can carry “X” or “Y” chromosomes, fuse with the egg of your mother which carries an “X” chromosomes.
Both “XY” and “XX” embryos can’t differentiate till 6-7 weeks because till then both have identical gonads. Around seven weeks male organ starts to develop due to gene on “Y” chromosomes called “SRY”.
Every embryo has a pair of proto gonads which are neither male or female. SRY is the part of the male Y chromosome. SRY genes change proto gonad into testes which produce testosterone and create and create the rest of the genitalia.
SRY causes cells to become more specialized, and these cells create “testosterone” which trigger the development of the structure of the scrotum and penis. And other cell blocks female development by creating “female ducts”.
Because if there are no “Y” chromosomes neither SRY gene will present. If the SRY gene is not present, then proto gonads develop naturally and uninterrupted.
With time, proto gonads or ducts intact and become the uterus, upper vagina, cervix, and oviduct with the help of estrogen and chemical release by the early kidney.
But this is not always the case. There can be very rare, but a possible combination like “XXY”, “XXYY”, “XXX” etc. even “XX” chromosomes can develop male genitals and characteristics due to the breaking of “Y” chromosomes and switching places with a small part of “X” chromosomes.
Sometimes the SRY gene can be dysfunctional. XY chromosomes should always have functioning SRY genes.
However, if the SRY gene is dysfunctional the male genitals aren’t formed and when the time will pass baby would born with female genitalia despite having male XY chromosomes 2.
Its reverse can also happen when the embryo with XX chromosomes can also have an SRY gene.
This can cause a baby with male genitals being with XX chromosomes.
There are huge number of other possibilities that can baby born with. So biological sex is not clearly defined.
Sexual differentiation in the brain occurs much later than gonad differentiation. And male and female brain have functional and structural differences between each other.
In the study, it is found that male generally has a larger cerebrum, hippocampus, and cerebellum.
And the female has a higher density frontal lobe and larger volume in the right frontal lobe.
In several studies, it is found that transgender’s brain is functionally and structurally more similar to their experienced gender identity than their biological sex. 1
In one study it is found that transwoman who, despite being signed as male at birth had a smaller size of the hypothalamus as the female has.
MRI scans also show that the brain structure of trans people more similar to their experienced gender, and not their sex.
Finally, the hormone Androstadienone causes different hypothalamic responses in female and male brains.
When an individual with “Gender Dysphoria” was exposed to it, then hypothalamus repose matches their perceived gender and not by their sex.
These studies help to find out masculinization or feminization of the gonads is not always the same as the brain of people and this creates the difference between your sex or your anatomy and your gender or as we perceive our body.
It also seems that there are genetic components to transgender identity.
Looking at the family histories, gender identity incongruence seems to run in the family simply mean they may be inherited.
The ‘CYP17’ gene, which controls the level of sex hormone has changed too little that is expressed frequently in trans man.
Scientists are currently looking at over 3 Million markers of transgender identity to the transgender link for being transgender
Even though it is also validated by the scientist that transgender people are suffering from more anxiety and depression than the general public.
You know that if individuals have XX chromosomes will be a girl and with XY will be a boy.
But it is also true that if an individual has XX chromosomes can be a boy, and with XY chromosomes can also be a girl. It comes with psychology, anatomy, and physiology.
Gender identity is the gender you identify yourself. Your gender identity is purely based on you if you find yourself male, female or another gender. Here the transgender people come in.
Transgender people are the individual who doesn’t identify yourself with the sex, they born as.
People born with male biological sex, but can identify yourself as a female.
In research, it is found that sexual differentiation at the genitals and brain happen at a different time in pregnancy. In 6-8 weeks of pregnancy genderless proto gonads start to become male or female.
Whereas gender-based difference in the brain happens in the second half of pregnancy and it can be affected by a variety of factors such as hormones, nutrients, and chemicals.
This means the environment around an embryo could change, the difference between genitals developed and the brain.
Gender expression is based on how you convey other people your gender. This could be through clothing, behavior and other signs of gender.
In another spectrum of the end is masculine and one end is feminine where you express your gender.
And there is a number of expressions of gender can fall It’s not necessary that your gender expression which doesn’t match 100% of your biological sex make you transgender.
If your biological sex male and gender identity are male it doesn’t necessarily that your gender expression is 100% masculine.
Transphobia is a range of negative attitude, action, and feeling, toward the transsexual or transgender. Transphobia is a type of prejudice similar to sexism and racism 3.
Child victims of transphobia experience violence, bullying, and harassment.
Transphobia can take a different form.
- The negative attitude towards transgender
- Disbelief or gender identity
- Abuse, violence, and bullying
- Derogatory language.
Transphobia can also lead to discrimination people who are transgender may be denied housing, job or health care. People may hold transphobia belief, if they were taught in that way by parents or families who have negative ideas about transgender people.
But most of the people have very misinformation or no information about transgender identities.
Transphobia is very harmful to trans people and it can cause
4. Depression and suicide.
Gender dysphoria is also called “ gender identity disorder”4 which mean there is a mismatch between body and internal sense of gender. One important thing that it is not a mental illness. This condition is called transsexualism, but some find it offensive. Now “ transgender” is most often use to describe the person who born with the wrong body with respect to their gender what they sense at least.
People who born with Gender dysphoria have a strong feeling that they are born in the wrong body.
For example, a person is born with a penis and all other physical characters of a male might think or feel like he is actually a woman. That person would have a very intense desire to have a female body and to be accepted by others as female. And its reverse is also true a female person can also feel her true identity as a male.
1. Hatred with their genitals, to see their genitals or touching their genitals.
2. Have a very strong desire to get rid of their genitals and other body traits.
3. Very strong feeling that true gender is now aligned with their body.
1. Consistently saying that they are really a boy if physical trait of girl or really is a girl if the physical trait of a boy.
2. Strongly preferring friends of sex which they identify yourself.
3. Rejecting clothes and toys which are specifically for their sexual identity.
4. Love to urinate in the way standing or sitting which is opposite to their sex.
Diagnosis (5) and treatment are very important for the person who has Gender Dysphoria because people with Gender Dysphoria have a higher rate of mental health condition.
It is estimated that 71% of people with Gender Dysphoria have some mental diagnosis in their life at some point.
The treatment goal is not to change person how to feel about his or her gender identity, but the goal is to deal with distress which may come with these feelings.
Talking to a psychiatrist is the part of any treatment for the person with Gender Dysphoria. This therapy is one way to address the mental issue that this condition can cause.
Beyond this, many people choose to take some step to change their gender identity.
To change the physical appearance, treatment to include
Adults or teen takes hormone like testosterone or estrogen to develop their physical traits as they identify yourself with.
2. Puberty blocker hormone
A person with Gender Dysphoria finds puberty changes most stressful. A young person with Gender Dysphoria in early puberty might ask for hormone testosterone and estrogen that would suppress physical changes. But before taking this decision person should take to a psychiatrist about the pros and cons of taking this hormone.
After a transition person may no longer feel gender dysphoria. But after that person needs sport and sometimes therapy because of friends, co-worker, the family has a hard time to understand this.
L = Lesbian = when two girls love each other.
G = Gay = when two male loves each other and they have a feeling for each other, not an ordinary feeling but strong, emotionally and sexually.
B = Bisexual = when a male or female can have a feeling for both male and female.
T = Transgender = this is the third gender they do not feel the same as they are born with the body. An individual born with a male body and feel like a woman.
I = intersex = in these people, it cannot confirm with their genitals that they are male or female at the time of birth. Doctors decide, they should consider a boy or girl.
Q = Queers = those who do not know about their ender that they are male or female and they even do not know that they are attracted to male or female. It is like an umbrella for the entire community. This word can be offensive to someone.
Transgender men and women often face bigotry, discrimination, and hatred from their friends, coworkers and rejected by their families.
Most of the people find disgusting the transgender people and they do not treat transgender people as normal people. Transgender people struggle for their normal life, but they never get.
Too many Transgenders are negatively affected by the transphobia which can cause violence or even murder. In the survey, it is found that 41% of trans people had attempted suicide as compared to 1.6% of general people.
Transgender people are normal people like we are, only they have some sexual complications. But we shouldn’t discard them from our society for this ridiculous reason.
How we can help or be an ally of transgender people?
Transgender communities are fighting for equal rights for a long time. Although we have been making great progress, there is still lots of work to do.
1. Give feel them that they are normal
We shouldn’t look at them like they are different from us. Mostly when people saw or heard about transgender they start looking at them in a different way are staring at them. We should be normal when they pass as another person passes through. All you need if you talk to them as you talk to other people. Don’t let them feel that they are different.
2. Transgender Issue
You can ask your local festival to include the films which target on transgender issues. Local festivals are the best way to aware of local people about the transgender problem.
Best way to help transgender, people to support their education. Aware transgender people about education because this is the only way we can help the entire transgender community.
4. Not necessary to understand their identity in respect
It is not necessary to understand their gender identity to respect them. most of the people cannot understand their identity fully, but you no need, just respect this as they are.
5. Interact with transgender
You should be respectfully interacting with transgender individuals or groups. Don’t say the word which can hurt them. You pronoun, as they express themself. For example, if transgender persons express yourself in front of you as they are girl use pronoun she, her, herself etc.
If a transgender person changes their name so you should never ask real name it can embarrass them.
6. Don’t ever use abusive or slur against transgender.
7. Avoid any compliments which actually insults them like “ you look like a girl”, “ you are more beautiful than girls”, “ I would never guess that you were transgender”
8. Don’t make assumptions about them.
9. Educate yourself and other people about the transgender issue.
1. Gender transition surgery can cost $5000 to $50000.
3. In research since 2011, the National Transgender Discrimination Survey reveals that 41% of transgender people (2,644 out of 6450) had attempted suicide.
4. In study 2011, National Center for Transgender Equality and the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force, reveal that 19% of respondent suffered from violence or abuse by their family member.
5. According to a June 2016 report by The Williams Institute, approximate 0.6% of U.S. adults find as a transgender which is equivalent to 1.4 Million Americans.
clairi“The Transgender Community by the Numbers” “https://www.marieclaire.com/culture/g3065/transgender-facts-figures/ “
- NCBI “Transsexualism: A Different Viewpoint to Brain Changes” “https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5953012/”
- NCBI “brain work like Gender identity rather than Assigned sex” “https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29981752”
- NCBI “ Gender identity and Sexual orientation” “https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4589638/#B60”
- Genetics Home References “XY women” “https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/swyer-syndrome”
- NCBI “Sexual
- NCBI “Transphobia” “https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29528801”
- NCBI “Gender dysphoria” “https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26590617”
- NHS “treatment for gender dysphoria” “https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/gender-dysphoria/treatment/”